Category Archives: Congenital Birth Defetcs

Intestinal Malrotation

A potentially fatal birth defect known as intestinal malrotation results from abnormal or incomplete rotation of the intestines during the development of the fetus.

Twisting of the intestine, termed volvulus is often caused by intestinal malrotation. Infants who have malrotation can suddenly develop a volvulus which cuts off the blood supply to specific areas of the intestine. Midgut volvulus develops when the middle potion of the intestine is completely deprived of blood supply. Sudden swelling of the abdomen as well as diarrhea and vomiting may indicate this condition. The vomit may contain yellow or green colored bile or it may be rust-colored. Abdominal distension soon develops. A barium x-ray may help diagnose this condition. In this test, barium enema is administered before taking the x-rays so that abnormalities in the intestines can be clearly visible on the x-ray image.

Immediate surgical intervention, usually within hours of birth, may be required to save the infants who have this condition. Fluids are administered intravenously as part of the treatment. Intestinal tissue loss or even death may result if emergency surgery is not performed to correct the defect.

Watch This Video About Intestinal Malrotation (Volvulus):

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Anal Atresia

Narrowing of the anus or an obstruction occurring in the anal canal is referred to as anal atresia

Anal atresia impedes the passage of stool out of the body. Alternate channels called fistula are often present along with anal atresia. These fistulas may connect the anus to the urethra, or the urinary bladder, or to the vagina in female infants. Sometimes the fistula may open to the outside in the area between the anus and the urethra known as perineum.

When anal atresia is present, the newborn is unable to have normal bowel movements after birth. As the fecal matter accumulates in the digestive tract, intestinal obstruction develops. But, anal atresia is often detected during the physical examination of the infant immediately after birth, and usually well before the symptoms begin to appear.

Anal atresia is a birth defect which requires emergency surgical intervention. X-rays can show the abnormal channels or fistulas, if any. Anal obstructions are opened up during the surgery and the fistulas are closed at the same time. Sometimes, the stool is rerouted to a temporary opening created on the abdominal wall and attaching the colon to it. This surgical procedure is known as colostomy. The stool is collected in a plastic bag attached to the opening till another surgery is performed to reattach the colon to the anus.

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Esophageal Atresia And Tracheoesophageal Fistula

Narrowing of the esophagus is termed esophageal atresia. Sometimes, esophagus may end blindly. In tracheoesophageal fistula, an abnormal channel exists between the trachea and the esophagus.

The esophagus, or the food pipe, is an elongated, tube-like structure connecting the mouth and the stomach. When esophageal atresia is present, the passage of food into the stomach becomes restricted or even completely stopped. If tracheoesophageal fistula occurs, it can allow the food particles and the saliva to pass into the lungs through the fistula. It may precipitate potentially fatal situations such as serious infections and pneumonia in the infants. Food particles and fluid in the lungs decrease the ability of the lungs to oxygenate the blood, resulting in cyanosis or a bluish coloration of the skin. Coughing when trying to swallow, and drooling, are characteristic symptoms of esophageal atresia. Infants who have esophageal atresia as well as tracheoesophageal fistula are often found to be having congenital heart defects also.

 X-rays taken while a tube is being inserted into the esophagus help detect the blockage. Oral feedings are stopped immediately and fluids are administered intravenously. A suction tube is inserted into the upper part of the esophagus to remove the saliva before it reaches the lungs. Surgical correction of the abnormalities is performed as soon as possible. The connection of the esophagus to the trachea is closed and a connection from the esophagus to the stomach is opened up for the normal movement of the food.

Watch This Video About Esophageal Atresia:

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Overview of Digestive Tract Defects

Abnormalities occurring in the structure, position and function of the different parts of the digestive tract are referred to as digestive tract defects.

  • Abnormal positioning and incomplete development of the different digestive organs may result in blocks; defects in the nerves and muscles associated with the digestive tract may interfere with the proper functioning of the digestive system.
  • Abdominal distension and pain in the abdomen are the usual symptoms. Vomiting may be present.
  • Physical examination followed by x-rays help diagnose digestive tract defects.
  • Most birth defects of the digestive tract may require surgical correction.

Congenital digestive tract defects may occur in any part of the digestive tract, from the esophagus to the rectum. Often, the incomplete development may cause obstructions in the digestive tract at places where it is narrowed. Abnormal position of the organs also results in blockages.   Weakness of the muscular walls of the abdominal cavity may cause holes to develop. Congenital megacolon or Hirschsprung’s disease may occur due to the improper development of the nerves associated with the intestines Obstructions in the movement of fecal matter can result in the distension of the abdomen, severe pain and vomiting.

Birth defects of the digestive tract almost always require corrective surgery. Obstructions have to be opened up by surgery. If there are weak spots or holes in the muscular wall, they have to be repaired surgically.

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Neonatal Genital Defects (Male And Female Defects)

Abnormalities present in the reproductive organs of the newborn are referred to as genital defects.

  • The exposure of the fetus to abnormally high or low amounts of sex hormones in the womb results in genital defects.
  • Genital ambiguity occurs when the genitals of the newborn cannot be defined as either masculine or feminine.
  • When an infant has ambiguous genitals, the sex is determined by physical examination, followed by blood tests which are done to analyze the chromosomal make-up and the levels of the sex hormones.
  • Once the infant’s gender is determined, hormone therapy, as well as surgery, may be done to normalize the genitalia.

The external genitals, including the testes and penis in male infants, and the clitoris in female infants, may be defective due to exposure of the fetus to abnormal hormone levels during its development. Metabolic disorders such as adrenal hyperplasia (congenital) may result in genital defects. Chromosomal aberrations also cause abnormalities in the development of the infant’s genitalia.

When the genitals of an infant cannot be clearly classified as either masculine, or feminine, it is called intersex state or ambiguous genitals. Majority of infants who have this type of genitals have ambiguity in their external genitalia only. Genetically they may be female or male, not both. They are referred to as pseudo hermaphrodites when their genetic make-up cannot be assigned to either one of the sexes.

The infants who have ambiguous genitals are examined carefully to determine their actual sex. Often blood tests are necessary. Since males have XY pattern and females have XX pattern of chromosomes, the blood test to determine the chromosomal make-up correctly detects the sex of the infants. The blood levels of male sex hormones like testosterone and pituitary hormones may indicate the sex of the infant. The internal genital organs may be examined with an ultrasound scan or x-ray of the pelvic region. The male hormone testosterone may be administered to enlarge the external genitals to make it easier to distinguish between the two sexes.

The infant’s sex must be determined as soon as possible so that it can be considered either female or male. It helps in avoiding bonding issues the infant’s parents may have if the infant is neither a son nor a daughter. The infant may have gender identity disorder on growing up too. The extent of testosterone exposure, and the potential for future sexual function, as well as reproductive ability, is taken into consideration when the gender is assigned to the infant. Other factors which affect the decision are psychological and social issues such as the parent’s preference for a particular sex. Surgical correction of the ambiguous external genital organs can be done later. The cause of pseudo hermaphroditism should be treated as well.

Male Genital Defects

Both the male and the female genitalia develop from the same type of embryonic tissue. The amount of sex hormones present during the prenatal development of the infant helps the tissue to differentiate into either male organs such as penis, penile urethra and scrotum or the female genital structures like labia majora, clitoris, vagina and an independent urethra. If the androgens are absent or very low, female genitalia develop. Ambiguous genitals result when the androgen levels are intermediate. Genetic males with ambiguity may have very small penile organ and undescended testes and this condition is known as cryptorchidism. If ambiguity is in genetic females, the clitoris is enlarged and fused with the labia. In both conditions, the external organs look similar but cannot be assigned to one sex without further testing.

Deficiency of androgens during the development of the fetus in the mother’s womb is responsible for pseudo hermaphroditism of the genetically male infant. It is also referred to as undervirilized 46,XY intersex. The external genitals of the infant resemble female genitalia and the testes may be undescended. Besides the deficiency of androgens or male sex hormones during the prenatal period, poor tissue response to the androgens, as well as exposure to estrogens or female sex hormones, may cause this condition. It may result from chromosomal aberrations too. The testes developing in the male fetus usually start producing androgens once they are ready. If the testes are not properly developed or if they are absent, it results in the deficiency of the male hormones.

Deficiency in androgens during childhood results in retarded physical and sexual development. Poor muscular development and high-pitched voice are symptoms occurring in boys due to androgen deficiency. The sexual organs do not develop well. Secondary sexual characteristics such as hair growth will be less. Abnormally long legs and hands are another characteristic symptom.

Testosterone is administered to treat androgen deficiency. Testosterone injections or skin patches are used for the treatment. These methods are preferred to oral administration of the drug due to reduced side effects. Growth stimulation, fertility and normal sexual development can be achieved through testosterone therapy.

Female Genital Defects

The exposure of the female fetus to excessive amounts of male hormones results in female pseudohermaphroditism, which is otherwise known as virilization. It is also refer to as overvirilized 46,XX intersex. The enlargement of the adrenal glands, known as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is the usual reason for the excessive secretion of the androgens or the male hormones. Sometimes, due to the lack of an enzyme, the normal conversion of the male hormones into female hormones cannot take place. Occasionally, excess male hormones reach the fetus from the mother through the placenta. This may happen if the mother is taking progesterone to avoid miscarriage. This drug may get converted by the fetus into the male hormone testosterone. Rarely, a tumor in the mother may be secreting excess male hormones

When the infant is a pseudo hermaphrodite, the internal sexual organs are feminine but the external genital organs resemble that of the male due to the enlargement of clitoris which appears like a small-sized penis. Once the infant’s feminine sexual status is confirmed, the external genitals are surgically modified to look like female organs. The clitoris is reduced and the urinary outlet urethra is repaired. Depending on the condition of the vagina, it is either constructed, or repaired, by a procedure known as vaginoplasty.

If congenital adrenal hyperplasia is present, corticosteroid therapy should be initiated as soon as possible as it is a potentially fatal condition causing electrolyte imbalance in the body. Blood tests are done to detect this condition.

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Kidney, Ureter, Bladder And Urethra Defects

Abnormalities occurring in the kidneys, urinary bladder, the ureters connecting the kidneys to the bladder and the urethra are referred to as urinary tract defects.

  • Most of the minor defects of the urinary tract may not have any symptoms, but some defects may lead to infections of the urinary tract, kidney stone formation or passing of blood in the urine.
  • Urinary tract defects can be detected by ultrasonography, CT scan, and nuclear scanning. Cystoscopy and intravenous urography are two other useful tests.
  • Surgical correction may be necessary when the defect increases the pressure on the kidneys or if symptoms develop.

Urinary tract defects are the most common type of birth defects. In addition to the kidneys and the urinary bladder, ureters which carry the urine to the bladder, and the urethra into which the bladder is emptied, also may be affected. When the urine flow is blocked or restricted by any of the birth defects, urine gets stagnated, resulting in the formation of kidney stones or infections of the urinary tract. Urine pressure may increase due to blockages, resulting in backward urine flow into the kidneys. This reflux eventually causes damage to the ureters and the kidneys. Frequent urinary tract infections, when combined with reflux, can have serious consequences.

Symptoms

In many cases of urinary tract defects, symptoms may be completely absent. Certain kidney defects result in blood in the urine when minor injuries happen. Birth defects of the urinary tract make the affected people highly prone to urinary tract infections which can occur at any location along the tract. These infections may cause other symptoms. However, when kidney damage is caused by blockages in the tract, no symptoms may appear till kidney function is extremely reduced. Severe loss of kidney function leads to kidney failure. When blockages cause kidney stone formation, the main symptom is very severe pain in the flanks or the groin. Blood may be present in the urine due to injuries caused to the urinary tract by the passage of tiny stones.

Diagnosis and Treatment

A physical examination followed by ultrasound scan or CT scan help diagnose urinary tract defects and abnormalities. Intravenous urography and nuclear scans are other useful diagnostic tests. Cystoscopy also may be conducted. Surgical correction of the defects is necessary when defects cause extra pressure on the infant’s kidneys or when symptoms are present.

KIDNEY AND URETER DEFECTS

Kidneys, and the thin tubes called ureters which connect them to the urinary bladder, may have several congenital defects or abnormalities. Some of them are:

  • Ectopia, an abnormality in which the kidneys are situated in the wrong place.
  • Malrotation, which causes the kidneys to be in an abnormal position.
  • Horseshoe kidney, which is formed when the two kidneys are joined together.
  • Potter’s syndrome, which is the absence of both the kidneys causing death.
  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), characterized by the presence of cysts filled with fluid occurring in the kidneys.

Enlargement of kidneys resulting from blockages in the flow of urine may be felt by the doctor during a physical examination. Narrowing of the ureters may restrict the flow of urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. Other abnormalities in the ureters include development of extra ureters, wrong positioning of the ureters, and widening of the ureters.

Most of the congenital kidney defects are not detected, as they do not cause any symptoms. Certain defects which interfere with kidney function may result in kidney failure. Dialysis is the treatment for kidney failure. Kidney transplantation is another option if suitable donor kidney is available.

BLADDER AND URETHRA DEFECTS

Several congenital defects and abnormalities may occur in the bladder, or the urethra, resulting in symptoms that vary according to the severity of the defects. Some of them are:

  • Exstrophy, in which the urinary bladder opens on the abdominal surface due to incomplete closing of the bladder during fetal development.
  • Diverticula or outpouchings of the urinary wall bladder in which urine may get stagnated, resulting in infections.
  • Narrowing of the bladder outlet causing incomplete emptying of the bladder.

In some infants, the urethra may be completely absent or abnormally formed. Abnormal growth of tissues may partially block the posterior urethral valves, restricting the flow from the urinary bladder. Urinary stream at the time of voiding may be weak in infants with this condition. They have a very high risk of developing urinary tract infections and even a serious infection of the blood known as sepsis. Anemia and reduced weight gain are common symptoms in the affected infants. Surgical correction of the blockage has to be done in such cases. When the defects are minor, symptoms may not appear in infants. However, symptoms may eventually appear in childhood, but they are usually mild.

Sometimes, the urethral opening in boys may not be in the right place. When it occurs on the underside of the boy’s penis, it is known as hypospadias. Chordee is a condition in which the penis is bent downwards, commonly occurring in boys who have hypospadias. These defects can be surgically corrected. When the urethra runs along the length of the penis as a channel, instead of as a closed tube, it is referred to as epispadias. Narrowing of the urethra, when it occurs in boys, or in girls, it may cause obstruction to the urine flow. Surgical correction is often necessary.

Watch This Explanatory video of Polycystic kidney disease (PKD):

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Coarctation Of The Aorta (Aortic Coarctation)

Narrowing of the major blood vessel aorta at a point before where it is joined by the ductus arteriosis is termed as coarctation of the aorta.                                                                                                                                                                    

  • The narrowing of aorta significantly reduces the amount of blood reaching the lower half of the infant’s body.
  • Heart murmurs, as well as a lower blood pressure in the legs when compared to that of the hands, are the usual symptoms, but some infants remain asymptomatic.
  • The symptoms, when present, indicates this condition, but an echocardiography and a chest x-ray help confirm the diagnosis of aortic coarctation.
  • Treatment involves surgical correction, and occasionally, drug therapy.

The flow of blood to the lower parts of the infant’s body is significantly decreased by aortic coarctation, resulting in measurable difference between the blood pressure in the hands and legs. The blood pressure in the legs becomes abnormally low, while the hands register an abnormally high blood pressure which persists in the upper parts of the body. A heart murmur indicating this condition also may be present. Coarctation should be treated; without proper treatment it causes high blood pressure and enlargement of the heart, eventually leading to heart failure. In children, coarctation of the aorta can cause bacterial endocarditis and brain hemorrhage. The aorta may rupture too. Other defects like aortic valve stenosis, and septal defects affecting the atria and ventricles, are usually present in infants who have aortic coarctation.

If coarctation is mild to moderate, it may remain asymptomatic. In rare cases, nose bleeds and headaches may be caused by the increased blood pressure in the upper parts of the body. Reduced blood flow to the legs may result in pain due to inadequate oxygen supply to the leg muscles during exercise.

If aortic coarctation is severe in the infant, the blood reaches the aorta through the ductus arteriosus which connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta at the point past the narrowing of the aorta. As long as the ductus arteriosus remains open, usually up to two weeks after birth, there will not be any symptoms of coarctation in the infant. When the alternate blood supply to the aorta stops with the closure of the ductus arteriosus, a sudden dramatic change takes place with almost complete loss of blood supply to the lower parts of the body, resulting in extremely low pressure. Potentially fatal heart failure too may occur.

When the doctor detects a heart murmur and differences in blood pressure or pulse between the infant’s arms and legs, coarctation is investigated. ECG, x-rays and echocardiography are tests used to diagnose the condition accurately.

If coarctation of the aorta is severe, it requires immediate emergency surgery to enlarge the narrowed portion of the aorta. As soon as the condition is detected, prostaglandin is administered to the newborn to reopen the ductus arteriosus, or to prevent its closure, so as to prolong the blood supply to the aorta. Alprostadil is a drug used for this purpose. Other drugs which strengthen the pumping action of the heart are also given. When the infant grows up, the surgery may have to be repeated. Instead of open heart surgery, balloon angioplasty may be done and a stent can be implanted to keep the aorta widened. If the symptoms due to aortic coarctation are mild, surgery is often postponed for three to five years.

This Video Explains Aortic Coarctation:

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Transposition Of The Great Arteries (TGA)

When the aorta and the pulmonary artery are connected to the heart in reverse of their normal positions, the condition is termed as transposition of the great arteries (TGA).

  • The reversed positions of the pulmonary artery and the aorta results in the reversal of the flow of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; the oxygen-rich blood reaching the lungs instead of getting circulated to the body.
  • Severe blue coloration of the infant’s skin (cyanosis) and breathing difficulty are the usual symptoms which are present at birth.
  • The typical symptoms present at birth point to this condition; ECG, x-ray and echocardiography help in confirming the diagnosis.
  • Surgical intervention within days of birth is necessary.

The deoxygenated blood returning to the heart normally gets emptied into the right atrium and then into the right ventricle from where it gets pumped out to the lungs via the pulmonary artery for oxygenation. When transposition of the great arteries is present, the oxygen-poor blood reaches the right ventricle as usual, but from there it gets pumped into the aorta instead of into the pulmonary artery going to the lungs. The aorta which normally supplies oxygenated blood to the other parts of the body thus receives deoxygenated blood instead. In the meantime, the oxygenated blood from the lungs returns via the pulmonary vein to the left atrium and into the left ventricle as usual. But, from the left ventricle it gets pumped back into the lungs again through the pulmonary artery, forming a closed loop between the heart and the lungs.

When infants are born with transposition of the great arteries (TGA), they may survive for a few days because of the existence of an opening between the left and right atria, called foramen ovale which allows the mixing up of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood inside the heart. A blood vessel called ductus arteriosus, which connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetus, also allows some amount of mixing, as long as it remains patent. Often, in infants with transposition of the great arteries, a septal defect is present in the wall between the ventricles too. The limited oxygen supply which is made available to the body through the mixed blood may be sufficient for the infant to survive in the first few days after birth.

Symptoms such as bluish discoloration the body called cyanosis, and breathing difficulty, are usually present right from the time of birth. A physical examination of the infant, followed by x-ray, ECG, and an echocardiography, confirms the presence of transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Surgical correction as early as possible is necessary to save the life of the infant. Until the surgery can take place, a drug called alprostadil is given to keep the fetal circulatory pathways open. A minimally invasive procedure called balloon septostomy too may be performed for shunting the blood till surgery is performed. During surgery, the aorta is attached to the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery is connected to the right ventricle. The coronary arteries are reattached to the aorta after its repositioning.

Watch This Video About Transposition Of The Great Arteries (TGA):

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Congenital Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

When the pulmonary valve, which allows the blood in the right ventricle to pass into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs, is narrowed, it is referred to as pulmonary valve stenosis.

  • The stenosis affects the valve in the right ventricle which allows blood to be pumped out into the pulmonary artery that carries it to the lungs.
  • A heart murmur is the most common symptom, but in some cases, cyanosis may be present, and heart failure can occur.
  • The symptoms lead to diagnosis, which is confirmed by echocardiography.
  • The valve may be opened up by balloon valvuloplasty, but surgical reconstruction may be necessary in some cases.

Mild to moderate stenosis, which is more common, causes the right ventricle to work harder to get the blood pumped into the pulmonary artery through the narrowed valve opening. The blood is pumped at higher than normal pressure too. If the valve is severely narrowed, the right ventricle can pump out almost no blood into the lungs. Pressure builds up in the right ventricle, and when it becomes too high, the deoxygenated blood gets pumped through alternate pathways such as a septal defect in the atrial wall. This results in right-to-left shunting.

A heart murmur may be the only symptom displayed by most of the children who have congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. Cyanosis may be present in a few, and heart failure may occur in some. When the children grow older, fatigue and breathing difficulties may develop on exertion. Echocardiogram can confirm the condition, but sometimes, a procedure called cardiac catheterization is done to determine the severity and extent of stenosis.

Balloon valvuloplasty can successfully enlarge a valve with moderate stenosis, but if there are structural abnormalities, reconstructive surgery may be necessary. The fetal blood vessel ductus arteriosus is kept open with the administration of a prostaglandin drug like alprostadil, till surgical correction of the pulmonary valve can be done, or a an alternate route bypassing the valve can be created. This relieves severe cyanosis occurring due to pulmonary valve stenosis. When the infant grows older, surgery may have to be repeated.

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis

When the aortic valve, which allows the oxygenated blood in the left ventricle to flow into the major artery aorta, is narrowed, it is referred to as aortic valve stenosis.

  • The heart has to work more forcefully to pump the blood out into the aorta through the narrowed valve.
  • A heart murmur is the usual symptom of aortic valve stenosis. Shortness of breath, pain in the chest, and fatigue, are the other symptoms that may occur in some cases.
  • The typical heart murmur and the other symptoms lead to diagnosis.
  • The valve has to be widened surgically, or in some cases, surgery is needed to replace the valve.

When the aortic valve is narrow, the left ventricle has to contract with higher than normal force to push the oxygenated blood into the aorta which supplies to the rest of the body. To maintain adequate blood supply, the heart pumps the blood at high pressure. Often, adequate amount of oxygenated blood does not reach the different parts of the body.

In most cases of congenital aortic valve stenosis, a typical heart murmur may be the only symptom present, especially in young children. As they get older, other symptoms such as shortness of breath and pain in the chest may be felt. Fatigue and occasional fainting may occur. Adolescents with aortic valve stenosis are at risk of sudden death, probably due to irregular heart rhythm resulting from the poor blood supply to the coronary artery which goes to the heart muscle. Irritability, pallor or paleness of skin, fast heart rate, sweating, extreme shortness of breath, and decreased blood pressure, are observed in some infants with aortic valve stenosis.

When a typical heart murmur is detected, or when a child has symptoms, congenital aortic valve stenosis is suspected and further investigations are conducted. Cardiac catheterization may help determine the extent and severity of stenosis.

Surgical options include widening of the valve, as well as valve replacement. Balloon valvulotomy is a procedure used to open up the valve surgically. Severe stenosis and associated symptoms may necessitate the implantation of an artificial valve. Since the risk of clot formation is high with artificial valves, an anticoagulant like warfarin should be taken by those who have them implanted. When heart failure results from aortic valve stenosis, immediate surgical intervention is necessary. Balloon valvuloplasty or surgical correction is done along with drug treatment.

Watch This Video About Congenital Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis:

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS
You might also likeclose